Sample Sidebar Module

This is a sample module published to the sidebar_top position, using the -sidebar module class suffix. There is also a sidebar_bottom position below the menu.

Sample Sidebar Module

This is a sample module published to the sidebar_bottom position, using the -sidebar module class suffix. There is also a sidebar_top position below the search.
Winter 2018

Dr. George Tchobanoglous is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of California, Davis. He received a B.S. degree in civil engineering from the University of the Pacific, an M.S. degree in sanitary engineering from the University of California at Berkeley, and a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1969. His research interests are in the areas of wastewater treatment, non-potable and potable water reuse, small and decentralized wastewater management systems.

He has authored or co-authored over 590 technical publications including 23 textbooks and 8 reference works. He has given over 600 technical presentations, both in the United States and abroad. He is a registered Civil Engineer in California. He is board certified Environmental. In 2003 he received the Clarke Prize from the National Water Research Institute. In 2004, he was inducted into the National Academy of Engineering. In 2005, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Engineering from the Colorado School of Mines. In 2017 he received two honorary Doctor of Engineering degrees from two universities in Greece.


George Tchobanoglous1
1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA

The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges and opportunities for wastewater treatment and management in the 21st century, and to highlight some changes that must occur. The challenges and opportunities for the future are many and varied. In the 20th century, the primary focus of wastewater treatment was on the removal and treatment of settleable and floatable solids, organic matter expressed as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), and pathogenic microorganisms. Late in the 20th century, nutrient removal and odors also became issues, and controlled, non-potable use of reclaimed water became a common practice in many parts of the world. In the 21st century, as a result of numerous world events and environmental issues, a paradigm shift has occurred in how wastewater is viewed. Wastewater is now considered a renewable recoverable source of energy, resources, and potable water. In light of this view of wastewater, it is appropriate to consider: (1) global trends, including climate change and uncontrollable events, that have and will further impact wastewater management, (2) trends in wastewater characterization, (3) trends in wastewater treatment, and (4) reliability versus resilience.



Contact Info

Hawai‘i Water Environment Association
PO Box 2422
Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96804
General Inquiries: