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Beach Clean-up at Sand Island State Rec Area

Aloha HWEA members and friends,
The Hawaii Water Environment Association will be hosting a beach-clean up at Sand Island State Recreation Area on Sunday, November 22, 2015 at 9am . The event is open to all members and their family and friends. We will be providing cleaning implements and water jugs, but if possible please bring your own/extra:
– Work Gloves
– Reusable bags (such as feed bags, pillow cases or buckets)
– Covered shoes for rocky areas
– Sunscreen and hat
– Coolers, tents, hibachi, food and beach toys
– REUSABLE water bottle
Stick around to participate in the raffle* and enjoy the beach. We will potluck after so feel free to bring your favorite dish. Please RSVP here or to You can also stay posted about the event at
*Please email us if you would like to donate anything for the raffle :)

RSVP on Facebook HERE

2016 HWEA Scholarship Program


To provide financial assistance to HWEA members and their dependents seeking higher education, and to encourage academic excellence.

1. Any dues-paying member of HWEA (including PWO) or member’s dependent (claimed as a dependent on the member’s most recent income tax return) since July 31, 2015.
2. Must be at least a freshman in the Fall 2016 semester at a college or university, enrolled
full-time in a bachelors, masters, or doctorate degree program.
3. Curriculum of study (or major) to include engineering, public health, or natural sciences
(e.g. biology, chemistry, geology, microbiology, oceanography, physics, etc.), as related to
the protection and enhancement of the water environment and associated public health.
4. Previous HWEA scholarship awardees are not eligible.

Up to two $2,000 awards may be made each year. Awardee(s) will be invited to the HWEA
Conference awards luncheon at no charge.

In order to be considered, applicants must submit the proper application form (both pages), provide an official transcript of grades for the most recent academic year and submit a letter of application, including the following application form and the items listed in Item 6. of the application form.

The number of awards to be made and the selection of the awardee(s) will be determined by the HWEA Executive Committee. Consideration will be given to applicants who are dedicated to their fields and have set goals for themselves which are consistent with the advancement of the objectives of WEF and HWEA.

 Applications must be submitted (or postmarked) no later than December 30, 2015.
 Awards will be announced at the HWEA Conference on February 2016. (date subject to change)
 Awards will be available for Fall 2016 (for Spring 2015, if already enrolled at a
college/university) and will be presented to the recipient upon proof of registration.
MINDY YONESHIGE (Phone: 768-8197, Email:


2011 YP FI

PWC: Photo Contest

Calling all shutterbugs!

Categories are:

  1. “Age is only a number” – photos depicting water and wastewater infrastructure more then 35 years old
  2. “Aquamen and Aquawomen” – photos depicting people interacting with water and/or wastewater – construction, maintenance, laboratory, other.

Entries will be displayed during the conference along with the photographer’s description provided on the entry form. The description should provide the photographer’s perspective on how the photo meets the category theme.

All entries must be received at no later than 11:59 pm (HST), Friday, December 4, 2015.

2016 Pacific Water Conference Photo Contest Criteria & Rules

2016 Pacific Water Conference Photo Contest Entry Form

Oahu Reuse FI

PWC: 2016 Golf Tournament


SITE: HAWAII PRINCE GOLF CLUB (For course information, visit
91-1200 Fort Weaver Road, Ewa Beach, Hawaii 96706
DATE/TIME: FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 2016 @ 11:30 AM (Shotgun Start) | CHECK-IN @ 9:30 AM
FORMAT: Four person scramble
GROUPS: All are welcomed. If you don’t have a full group of four, we’ll pair you up with some new friends!
HANDICAP: Tournament scoring will accept individual handicaps up to 30; a mean average for the team is developed;
the average handicap is weighted at 15% and applied to the final score.
MULLIGANS: $10 for two (limit of two mulligans per side, per player)
19TH PUKA: Prizes will be awarded at the banquet upon completion of play (For Contests, please see Attached).
Must be present to win lucky number prizes.
COST: GOLF TOURNAMENT SPONSOR (Bronze, Silver, Gold or Platinum Levels)
OR $175.00 per player (Includes Green Fees, Cart Fees, Sandwich Lunch and Banquet)
Competitors will receive complimentary range balls.
For questions, contact Darnelle Chung at (808) 836-1900 or
Reserve your spot prior to December 31, 2015 to ensure availability!

Click here for : Golf Registration Form

CMAA Hawaii Chapter 4th Annual Golf Tournament

Aloha Friends and Neighbors,

The CMAA Hawaii Chapter is happy to announce its 4th Annual Golf tournament on Friday, October 2nd, 2015 at the Coral Creek Golf Course.

This special golf tournament will be a day of fun and fellowship, and will help raise funds to provide college scholarships for students who are interested in pursuing a career in Construction Management as well as to support our chapter. Please support us and help equip these future Construction and Project Managers with the tools they need for success! Their success will translate into better managed construction projects for our islands.

We are pleased to offer you the opportunity for your organization to gain visibility with our CMAA ohana by becoming a sponsor or providing prizes for the tournament. As a sponsor, your company’s name and logo will be displayed at an assigned hole. We can distribute your Company’s material to the players, and you will be recognized on the tournament day brochure and during the award ceremony.

Thank you in advance for supporting CMAA Hawaii and we look forward to seeing you at the golf tournament.

Please contact me at (808) 864‐3955 or at with any questions, or you can send your sponsorship and/or donation to CMAA Golf Tournament Committee, 1286 Queen Emma Street, Honolulu, HI 96813.

CMAA 2015 Golf Tournament Flyer

Derek Mukai, PE, CCM
CMAA Hawaii Chapter President

What’s the Value of Water?

Value of Water Coalition Unveils New Education Campaign and Toolkit

“What’s the Value of Water?” materials are free for water agencies, community-based organization, and others to use in outreach efforts

Value of Water Service
ALEXANDRIA, Va., August 4, 2015 – The Value of Water Coalition and the Water Environment Federation (WEF) have released and are promoting the use of a new public awareness campaign and toolkit, “What’s the Value of Water?” As one of the original partners, WEF has been collaboratively working with the Value of Water Coalition, WEF members, volunteers, and leaders to help raise awareness about the value and importance of water. The new toolkit is an important part of this effort and is available at no cost to anyone interested in educating the public about the essential need to invest in our water infrastructure and water resources.

“The Value of Water Coalition is proud to create these beautiful and functional educational materials that can help organizations around the country educate and engage people about the true value of water,” said Radhika Fox, Director of the Value of Water Coalition. “It was an amazing process of collaboration among the 30 members of our coalition. We have some of the top leaders in water engaged in our Coalition, and this toolkit brings together decades of expertise in how to effectively communicate the value of water.”

The “What’s the Value of Water?” toolkit provides the following materials:

  • Billboards
  • Outdoor advertisements
  • Print advertisements (horizontal and vertical layouts)
  • Bill Stuffers
  • Conference Banners
  • Water Fact Sheet
  • Message Guide
  • Shareable Social Media Graphics

“Our water resources are being stressed more than ever, but it can be challenging to communicate this in ways that we can all relate to.  Sometimes the most impactful message about water is the simplest one: what would it be like to live a day without it,” said Eileen O’Neill, Executive Director of the Water Environment Federation. “We can all benefit from taking a moment to think about water and the importance of maintaining the systems that support our communities. WEF is proud to be a part of this important effort and we hope that the entire water sector uses these materials to help spread this message from coast to coast.”

All materials are available for download on the Value of Water Coalition Please review usage guidelines before publishing any materials.

About the Value of Water Coalition

The Value of Water Coalition educates and inspires people about how water is essential, invaluable, and needs investment. The Coalition has come together to advance positive solutions to our nation’s pressing water challenges. Members include: Alexandria Renew Enterprises, American Society of Civil Engineers, American Water, American Water Works Association, Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, Atlanta Department of Watershed Management, Black and Veatch, Brown and Caldwell, Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority, CH2M, DC Water, Dow Chemical Company, Hampton Roads Sanitation District, Hazen and Sawyer, Kansas City Water Services, LA Sanitation, Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, MWH Global, National Association of Clean Water Agencies, National Association of Water Companies, Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District, Philadelphia Water Department, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, United Water, U.S. Water Alliance, Veolia, Water Environment Federation, and Xylem.

About WEF

The Water Environment Federation (WEF) is a not-for-profit technical and educational organization of 36,000 individual members and 75 affiliated Member Associations representing water quality professionals around the world. Since 1928, WEF and its members have protected public health and the environment. As a global water sector leader, our mission is to connect water professionals; enrich the expertise of water professionals; increase the awareness of the impact and value of water; and provide a platform for water sector innovation. To learn more, visit

kroning FI

Robert Kroning – July Quarterly Luncheon

On July 1st 2015 Robert Kroning gave a great presentation about the Department of Design and Construction, City and County of Honolulu. He went over the Department’s Vision, upcoming projects and important points about working with the City.

Quality Customer Service:
– Take responsibility for the end product
– Communicate effectively
Innovative Solutions:
– Embrace and foster change
– Speak out (courage to push the envelope)
Continuous Improvement:
– Provide training/education
– Emphasize mentorship

20150701_122455 20150701_123019

kroning and kaj

Click here for the Presentation Slides.


2015 Conference Presentations

Pre-Conference Presentations

ASCE Hawaii Section YM
Engineering Designs that Cause Operational Challenges
Part 1-Control System Replacement
Part 2 Electrical Maintenance Digital Communications
Preventative Pipeline Maintenance
Process Analytical Instrumentation in Water Treatment Plants The Basics
Selection of Stainless Steels for Piping and Equipment in_Water_Treatment_Facilities
Time Management
Transition from Student to Engineering Professional
Waterline Design
Young Professionals Hawaii’s Future Leaders
Basic Hydraulics
Board Basics
CUPSS and Us Getting Started in Asset Management Using CUPSS
Components of Water Systems

Conference Day 1 Presentations

Meeting Maximum Extent Practicable with Minimum Resources Available
Nutrients and Toxics Compliance Strategies for Marine Waters in Hawaii
Operation and Maintenance Strategies for New Lift Stations
Operator of the Future
Out of Sight Out of Mind Who Says Air Valves Don’t Need Maintenance
Planning Support Services for San Francisco’s Auxiliary Water Supply System
Reducing Collection System Infiltration Through Lateral Lining
Relative Performance of Grit Removal Systems
State of the BWS Challenges and Opportunities
Utility of the Future When Do We Get There
Wastewater Design Standards
City Storm Water Management Program
Considerations for R1 Water Use Lessons Learned from the Field
Core Messages for Priority Contaminants of Emerging Concern
Corrosion of Stainless Steels in Wastewater Applications
Design and Construction of the Pearl City Peninsula to Ford Island Waterline Crossing Project
ENV CSM Wastewater Pump Stations
Expanding Value in Alternative Delivery
From the Flintstones to the Jetsons WWTP Improvements and Beyond in Dundee OR
Guidelines for Selecting an Effective Control Treatment Strategy when Changing Water Supply Sources or Modifying Treatment Portfolios
Hawaii Water Conservation Plan Update of Implementation Activities
Holy Moly Is that a Pipe or Swiss Cheese
Identifying the Best Potable Reuse Treatment Approach with the Triple Bottom Line in Mind

Conference Day 2 Presentations

Sewer Cleaning 101 Water Systems Nozzle Selection
Sources of Groundwater Nitrate in a Highly Permeable Aquifer Tutuila Island American Samoa
The Demon Process Resource Savings Through Side Stream Treatment and Steps Toward Energy Neutral WWTP
The Solution to Soaked Sludge Solids Thickening in the Pacific NW
The University of Hawaii Sustainable Institute of Maui Water Wastewater Operators Training Program
Understanding Our Kuleana Working within Culturally Sensitive Areas and the Importance of Initiating the Consultation Process with Native Hawaiian Organizations
Update of the Hawaii Water Resource Protection Plan
What is the Value of Reducing Water Use by 1000 Gallons per Month
Wireless SCADA Operation in a Water Treatment Plant
Choosing the Right Chlorine Analyzer for Your Application DPD Versus Amperometric
Developing an Effective Cross-Connection Control Program
Evaluation of Six GACs for 1,2,3 Trichloropropane Removal Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests
Selected Sustainability Facts and Figures
Small Systems Roundtable
A Success Story of Recycled Water Use From a Growers Perspective
Activated Sludge Process Control What’s Important and How It’s Easily Implemented
Active Construction Management
Certified Construction Manager
Chemical Optimization Study at Northern District WWTP
Continuing Evolution of BWS Water System Operations
Cut Costs Not Roots Eliminating SSOs with Chemical Root Control
Effective Customer Communication
Evolving Your Suspended Growth System for Growth
Getting Comfortable Outside of the Communications Comfort Zone Communication Skills for Engineers and Techies
GWA Wastewater Collection System Maintenance
Hawaii Freshwater Initiative
Improving Water Quality in Mandalay Myanmar
Many Changes at Kealakehe WWTP
Merging Isotropic Chemistry with Numerical Modeling to Investigate Groundwater Flow Paths
Pipeline Condition Assessment
Reservoir Condition Assessment

Small Water System Operator Training – AWWA

Module 1 – Final AWWA Workshop
Module 2 – Final AWWA Workshop
Module 3 – Final AWWA Workshop

Module 4 – Final AWWA Workshop
Module 5 -Final AWWA Workshop
Module 6 – Final AWWA Workshop
Module 7 – Final AWWA Workshop
Module 8 – Final AWWA Workshop
Module 9 – Final AWWA Workshop
Module 10 – Final AWWA Workshop

How Alkalinity Affects Nitrification

WEF HQ banner 1column

Use alkalinity profiling in wastewater operations to control biological activity and optimize process control

By Mary Evans and Gary Sober


The Water Environment Federation’s new Operations Challenge laboratory event will determine alkalinity needs to facilitate nitrification. Operators will evaluate alkalinity and ammonia by analyzing a series of samples similar to those observed in water resource recovery facilities.

This event will give operators an understanding of how alkalinity works in the wastewater treatment process to facilitate nitrification, as well as the analytical expertise to perform the tests onsite. This provides the real-time data needed to perform calculations, since these analyses typically are performed in a laboratory that can present a delay in the data.


What is alkalinity?

The alkalinity of water is a measure of its capacity to neutralize acids. It also refers to the buffering capacity, or the capacity to resist a change in pH. For wastewater operations, alkalinity is measured and reported in terms of equivalent calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Alkalinity is commonly measured to a certain pH. For wastewater, the measurement is total alkalinity, which is measured to a pH of 4.5 SU. Even though pH and alkalinity are related, there are distinct differences between these two parameters and how they can affect your facility operations.


Alkalinity and pH

Alkalinity is often used as an indicator of biological activity. In wastewater operations, there are three forms of oxygen available to bacteria: dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate ions (NO3), and sulfate ions (SO42-). Aerobic metabolisms use dissolved oxygen to convert food to energy. Certain classes of aerobic bacteria, called nitrifiers, use ammonia (NH3) for food instead of carbon-based organic compounds. This type of aerobic metabolism, which uses dissolved oxygen to convert ammonia to nitrate, is referred to as “nitrification.” Nitrifiers are the dominant bacteria when organic food supplies have been consumed.

Further processes include denitrification, or anoxic metabolism, which occurs when bacteria utilize nitrate as the source of oxygen and the bacteria use nitrate as the oxygen source. In an anoxic environment, the nitrate ion is converted to nitrogen gas while the bacteria converts the food to energy. Finally, anaerobic conditions will occur when dissolved oxygen and nitrate are no longer present and the bacteria will obtain oxygen from sulfate. The sulfate is converted to hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur-related compounds.

Alkalinity is lost in an activated sludge process during nitrification. During nitrification, 7.14 mg of alkalinity as CaCO3 is destroyed for every milligram of ammonium ions oxidized. Lack of carbonate alkalinity will stop nitrification. In addition, nitrification is pH-sensitive and rates of nitrification will decline significantly at pH values below 6.8. Therefore, it is important to maintain an adequate alkalinity in the aeration tank to provide pH stability and also to provide inorganic carbon for nitrifiers. At pH values near 5.8 to 6.0, the rates may be 10% to 20% of the rate at pH 7.0. A pH of 7.0 to 7.2 is normally used to maintain reasonable nitrification rates, and for locations with low-alkalinity waters, alkalinity is added at the water resource recovery facility to maintain acceptable pH values. The amount of alkalinity added depends on the initial alkalinity concentration and amount of NH4-N to be oxidized. After complete nitrification, a residual alkalinity of 70 to 80 mg/L as CaCO3 in the aeration tank is desirable. If this alkalinity is not present, then alkalinity should be added to the aeration tank.


Figure 1. pH versus nitrification rates at 68ºF (maximum nitrification rate occurs at 8.0–8.5 pH)

Source: EPA-625/4-73-004a, Revised Nitrification and Denitrification Facilities Wastewater Treatment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Seminar.

Figure 2. Measurement of nitrification activity at a pH of 7.2 and lower

Source: EPA-625/4-73-004a Revised Nitrification and Denitrification Facilities Wastewater Treatment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Seminar.



Why is alkalinity or buffering important?

Aerobic wastewater operations are net-acid producing. Processes influencing acid formation include, but are not limited to

  • biological nitrification in aeration tanks, trickling filters and rotating biological contactors;
  • the acid formation stage in anaerobic digestion;
  • biological nitrification in aerobic digesters;
  • gas chlorination for effluent disinfection; and
  • chemical addition of aluminum or iron salts.

In wastewater treatment, it is critical to maintain pH in a range that is favorable for biological activity. These optimum conditions include a near-neutral pH value between 7.0 and 7.4. Effective and efficient operation of a biological process depends on steady-state conditions. The best operations require conditions without sudden changes in any of the operating variables. If kept in a steady state, good flocculating types of microorganisms will be more numerous. Alkalinity is the key to steady-state operations. The more stable the environment for the microorganisms, the more effectively they will be able to work. In other words, a sufficient amount of alkalinity can provide for improved performance and expanded treatment capacity.


How much alkalinity is needed?

To nitrify, alkalinity levels should be at least eight times the concentration of ammonia in wastewater. This value may be higher for untreated wastewater with higher-than-usual influent ammonia concentrations. The theoretical reaction shows that approximately 7.14 mg of alkalinity (as CaCO3) is consumed for every milligram of ammonia oxidized. A rule of thumb is an 8-to-1 ratio of alkalinity to ammonia. Inadequate alkalinity could result in incomplete nitrification and depressed pH values in the facility. Plants with the ability to denitrify can add back valuable alkalinity to the process, and those values should be taken into consideration when doing mass balancing. (For Operations Challenge event, the decision has been made to not incorporate the denitrification step in process profiling.) To determine alkalinity requirements for plant operations, it is critical to know the following parameters:

  • influent ammonia, in mg/L,
  • influent total alkalinity, in mg/L, and
  • effluent total alkalinity, in mg/L.

For every mg/L of converted ammonia, alkalinity decreases by 7.14 mg/L. Therefore, to calculate theoretical ammonia removal, multiply the influent (raw) ammonia by 7.14 to determine the minimum amount of alkalinity needed for ammonia removal through nitrification.


For example:


Influent ammonia = 36 mg/L

36 mg/L ammonia ´ 7.14 mg/L alkalinity to nitrify = 257 mg/L alkalinity requirements

257 mg/L is the minimum amount of alkalinity needed to nitrify 36 mg/L of influent ammonia.


Once you have calculated the minimum amount of alkalinity needed to nitrify ammonia in wastewater, compare this value against your measured available influent alkalinity to determine if enough is present for complete ammonia removal, and how much (if any) additional alkalinity is needed to complete nitrification.


For example:


Influent ammonia alkalinity needs for nitrification = 257 mg/L

Actual measured influent alkalinity = 124 mg/L

257 – 124  = 133 mg/L deficiency


In this example, alkalinity is insufficient to completely nitrify influent ammonia, and supplementation through denitrification or chemical addition is required. Remember that this is a minimum — you still need some for acid buffering in downstream processes, such as disinfection.


Bioavailable alkalinity

Most experts recommend an alkalinity residual (effluent residual) of 75 to 150 mg/L. As previously identified, total alkalinity is measured to a pH endpoint of 4.5. For typical wastewater treatment applications, operational pH never dips that low. When measuring total alkalinity, the endpoint reflects how much alkalinity would be available at a pH of 4.5. At higher pH values of 7.0 to 7.4 SU, where wastewater operations are typically conducted, not all alkalinity measured to a pH of 4.5 is available for use. This is a critical distinction for the bioavailability of alkalinity. Therefore, in addition to the alkalinity required for nitrification, additional alkalinity must be available to maintain the 7.0 to 7.4 pH. Typically, the amount of residual alkalinity required to maintain pH near neutral is between 70 and 80 mg/L as CaCO3.


Proper alkalinity levels for treatment

Alkalinity is a major chemical requirement for nitrification and can be a useful and beneficial tool for use in process control. Several things to keep in mind:

  • Alkalinity provides an optimal environment for microscopic organisms whose primary function is to reduce waste.
  • In activated sludge, the desirable microorganisms are those that have the capability, under the right conditions, to clump and form a gelatinous floc that is heavy enough to settle. The formed floc or sludge can be then be characterized as having a sludge volume index.
  • The optimum pH range is between 7.0 and 7.4. Although growth can occur at pH values of 6 to 9, it does so at much reduced rates (see Figures 1 and 2). It is also quite likely that undesirable forms of organisms will form at these ranges and cause bulking problems. The optimal pH for nitrification is 8.0, with nitrification limited below pH 6.0.
  • Oxygen uptake is optimal at a 7.0 to 7.4 pH. Biochemical oxygen demand removal efficiency also decreases as pH moves outside this optimum range.


Mary Evans is a regional account manager for Premier Magnesia (Flint, Texas). She is a past president of the Water Environment Association of Texas and is the laboratory event coordinator of the WEF Operations Challenge Committee. Gary Sober is the vice president of technology for Byo-Gon Inc. (Chandler, Texas).


Please Note: The information provided in this article is designed to be educational.  It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice including without limitation legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information.  The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and the publisher of this article assume no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.